抓捕俄罗斯黑客 美国困境重重|S10决赛

本文摘要:WASHINGTON — When a suspected Russian cybercriminal named Dmitry Ukrainsky was arrested in a Thai resort town last summer, the American authorities hoped they could whisk him back to New York for trial and put at least a temporary dent in Russia’s arsenal of computer hackers.华盛顿——当取名为德米特里乌克兰斯基(Dmitry Ukrainsky)的俄罗斯网络犯罪嫌疑人于去年夏天在一个泰国渡假小镇逮捕时,美国当局原本期望他们可以将他很快送回纽约展开审判,对俄罗斯计算机黑客团队最少导致一段时间的压制。

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WASHINGTON — When a suspected Russian cybercriminal named Dmitry Ukrainsky was arrested in a Thai resort town last summer, the American authorities hoped they could whisk him back to New York for trial and put at least a temporary dent in Russia’s arsenal of computer hackers.华盛顿——当取名为德米特里乌克兰斯基(Dmitry Ukrainsky)的俄罗斯网络犯罪嫌疑人于去年夏天在一个泰国渡假小镇逮捕时,美国当局原本期望他们可以将他很快送回纽约展开审判,对俄罗斯计算机黑客团队最少导致一段时间的压制。But the Russian authorities moved quickly to persuade Thailand not to extradite him, saying that he should be prosecuted at home. 但俄罗斯当局迅速采取行动,劝说泰国不遣返他,称之为他应当在自己的国家拒绝接受控告。American officials knew what that meant. 美国官员告诉那意味著什么。

If Mr Ukrainsky got on a plane to Moscow, they concluded, he would soon be back at work in front of a computer.他们推测,如果乌克兰斯基攀上飞抵莫斯科的飞机,他迅速就不会返回电脑前工作。The American authorities continue the unacceptable practice of ‘hunting’ for Russians all over the world, ignoring the norms of international laws and twisting other states’ arms, the Russian Foreign Ministry said.美国当局持续展开让人无法拒绝接受的满世界‘追杀’俄罗斯人的行动,漠视国际法的规范,向其他国家施加压力,俄罗斯外交部回应。The dispute over Mr Ukrainsky,乌克兰斯基的案件仍然被不了了之。

whose case remains in limbo, highlights the difficulties — and at times impossibilities — 环绕他产生的争端,突显出美国在对付俄罗斯黑客上遭遇的艰难,有时甚至是不有可能构建的事。that the United States faces in combating Russian hackers, including those behind the recent attacks on the Democratic National Committee. 这些黑客就还包括民主党全国委员会(Democratic National Committee)最近遭遇的攻击背后所潜藏的人。That hack influenced the course, if not the outcome, of a presidential campaign and was the culmination of years of increasingly brazen digital assaults on American infrastructure.这场攻击就算没影响一场总统竞选的结果,也影响了它的进程,算是是倒数多年来,对美国基础设施所实行的数字攻击的巅峰,而且这种攻击还在日益显得肆无忌惮。The United States has few options for responding to such hacks. 在对此类攻击作出反应时,美国的自由选择并不多。

Russia does not extradite its citizens and has shown that it will not easily be deterred through public shaming. 俄罗斯不遣返它的公民,而且指出它会因为遭公开发表的侮辱而只能追击。At times, the American authorities have enlisted local police officials to arrest suspects when they leave Russia — for vacation in the Maldives, for example. 有时,美国当局不会在嫌疑犯离开了俄罗斯时——比如去马尔代夫渡假——让当地的警员被捕他们。But more often than not, the F.B.I. and Justice Department investigate and compile accusations and evidence against people who will almost certainly never stand trial.但更加少见的情况是,联邦调查局(FBI)和司法部(Justice Department)调查和整理了针对一些人的指控和证据,而这些人完全可以认同总有一天会受到审判。

You can indict 400 people. 你可以控告400个人,They don’t care, said Robert E. Anderson Jr., who until last year served as the F.B.I.’s most senior executive overseeing computer investigations.他们不在乎,直到去年还在兼任FBI计算机犯罪调查部门最低长官的小罗伯特E安德逊(Robert E. Anderson Jr.)说。The American government divides the cybersecurity world into two categories: attacks directed or sponsored by governments, and those conducted by criminals. 美国政府将网络福全世界区分成两类:由政府勾结或资助的攻击和由犯罪分子展开的。But Russian hacking defies easy categorization, American officials say, because the Russian government tacitly supports many private hackers and occasionally taps them for freelance government work. 但美国官员回应,他们无法非常简单地对俄罗斯黑客攻击展开分类,因为俄罗斯政府暗地里反对了许多个人黑客,有时候还让他们做到一些政府全职工作。That has complicated investigations and upended the normal diplomatic order.这令其调查显得更为简单,也超越了常规的外交秩序。

In May 2009, for instance, Secret Service agents met in Moscow with their counterparts in the Russian Federal Security Service, known as the F.S.B. 比如在2009年5月,美国特勤局(Secret Service)的特工在莫斯科与俄罗斯联邦安全局(Russian Federal Security Service,全称FSB)的特工会面。The Americans said they were investigating a hacker who had installed malicious code in the software that some American businesses used to process credit card transactions. 美方回应,他们在调查一名黑客,此人在一些美国公司用来处置信用卡交易的软件中设置了恶意代码。The hacker was stealing millions of credit card numbers and selling them in an underground digital marketplace.这名黑客在窃取数百万信用卡号码,将它们获得一个地下数字市场出售。

The agents provided a name — Roman Seleznev — and the aliases he used online. 这些特工获取了一个名字——罗曼谢列兹尼奥夫(Roman Seleznev)——及他在网上用于的一些化名。His father was a member of the Russian Parliament. 他的父亲是俄罗斯国会议员。The Secret Service had followed his digital trail to Vladivostok, Russia, and they asked for help catching him.美国特勤局跟踪他的数字踪迹至俄罗斯的符拉迪沃斯托克,拒绝俄方协助抓获他。

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Within weeks, all evidence of Mr Seleznev’s online identity vanished from the internet. 然而在几周之内,有关谢列兹尼奥夫网上身份的所有证据之后从互联网上消失了。Rather than advancing the case, the Russian government had set it back, the American authorities believed. 美国当局指出,俄罗斯政府非但没前进这个案件,终究构成了妨碍。Prosecutors described their blunt conclusion in court documents: Further coordination with the Russian government would jeopardize efforts to prosecute this case. 检方在法庭文件里下了这样的结论:与俄罗斯政府的更进一步合作,将严重威胁控告这个案件的希望。

The American authorities were left to pursue Mr Seleznev by themselves.美国当局现在不能自己设法查出谢列兹尼奥夫了。In the D.N.C. case and other election-year hacks, the authorities have concluded that people affiliated with the Russian government are to blame. 当局得出结论,指出在民主党全国委员会的案件和竞选年里的其他黑客攻击中,罪魁祸首是与俄罗斯政府有关联的人。

But even if intelligence officials can identify who is behind those attacks, naming the actual perpetrators is even harder. 但即便情报官员能确认谁是这些攻击的幕后主使,要寻找确实的犯罪者却更加无以。One senior federal law enforcement official said this week that investigators still had many unanswered questions.一位高层联邦执法人员官员回应,本周调查人员还有很多问题没获得答案。If it can be done, naming and prosecuting the hackers would follow a path set in 2014,如果可以做这些,证实身份和对黑客驳回指控的情形就不会和2014年的案件一样。

when the Justice Department indicted five members of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army on charges of hacking into American networks. 当时司法部以侵略美国网络的罪名控告了五名中国人民解放军人员。The indictment links the men to specific email addresses and aliases, but does not reveal how the authorities made those connections.这份起诉书将这些人与特定的邮件地址和化名联系一起,但没有表明当局是如何创建起这些联系的。

The chance of us ever getting those Chinese guys is about zero, said Mr Anderson. 我们捉到这些中国人的几率完全等于零,安德逊说道。But it does show them that there’s a change afoot. 但这的确让他们看见,情况在发生变化。

At least the way we’re looking at it policy-wise.最少我们在政策方面看来它的方式在发生变化。Criminal charges have more practical implications, too. 犯罪指控也有更加多实际的影响。It’s about denying them the ability to travel freely and preventing them from spending their ill-gotten gains anywhere but Russia, said Leo Taddeo, the chief security officer at Cryptzone and the former top agent in the F.B.I.’s New York computer operations division. 这基本上不会让他们无法权利上下班,也能避免他们在俄罗斯以外的地方用这些非法所得展开消费,之前为FBI纽约网络犯罪分部首席特工、现在兼任Cryptzone首席安全性官的利奥塔代奥(Leo Taddeo)说道。

You’re confining them to a prison that spans 11 time zones that can be a pretty unpleasant place.你是把他们关在了一座横跨11个时区的监狱,那里有时有可能让人非常不难受。

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